Management of Industrial Relations concept Trade unions in India

Trade unions:
            Any continuous association of wage earner for the purpose of maintaining of improving the conditions of their working levels.
Or
The Indian trade union act of 1926 defines a trade union as “any combination whether temporary or permanent formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen between employers and employers or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business and include and federation of two or more trade unions”.
Principles of trade unions:
a.       Unity is strength.
b.       Equal pay of equal work or for the same job i.e men and women should receive equal remuneration for the work of equal value.
c.        Social security or security of service.
Why do workers join in trade union:
      To get economic security---employment with adequate salary
      Restrain management to take decisions---job analysis, transfers, promotion, demotions, rewards, layoff, retrenchment should be in predetermined manner.
      Communicative views, ideas, feelings, aim, saturation effective voice required.
      Secure protection from economic hazardous ---- illness, accident, death, disability, retirement etc..
      To get along will fallow workers and gain respect in the eyes of the others.
      To get a job with the influence of trade union in other industries.
Examples of trade unions:
      AITUC-----All India trade union congress.
      INTUC-----Indian national trade union congress.
      HMS--------Hindu Mazdoor sabha.
      All India bank employee association.
      All India post and dock workers federation.
      Indian federation of working journalist.
      National federation of Indian railway men.
Objectives of trade unions:
      Wage and salaries.
      Working condition.
      Discipline, employer relation.
      Negotiating machinery.
      Sage guarding.
      Organizational health and interest of industry.
      Political pressure exercise.
Function of the trade unions:
      Protect the interest of workers.
      Improving the living standards of members.
      To get security on job.
      Economic and social security.
      Negotiating with employer over wages and other complaint.
      Organizing and guiding workers.
      To encourage sincerity and discipline.
      To minimize helpless workers.
      Control over the running of industry.
      To promote identity of workers.
      To provide education cultural relation.

Even though the function of trade union perspective in nature. These are divided into 4 categories.
Militant or protective or intramural
Extra mural or fraternal
Social functions
Political functions

Militant (or) protective (or) intramural:
           
            These functions include protect in the workers interest i.e.

Hike in wage
Provide in moral benefits, job security

Extramural (or) fraternal functions:

            The functions include providing financial and non financial assistants to the workers during the period of strikes, lockout, retrenchment, extension of medical facilities in case of sickness accidents and provision of education, recreation housing facilities etc..

Social functions:
           
            These functions include carryout of social service activity discharging social responsibility through several of the society like educating the customer making awareness. To make aware of environmental, health, hazardous.

Political function:
            These functions include affiliating a union to a political party, helping the party, collecting the donation conversing during the election period seeking the help of political party during the strikes and lockout and some court cases.
            In addition to this the trade unions also performs some ancillary function.
I.        Communication---program, activities, decisions, achievements.
II.      Education---education facilities to its members and their family members.
III.   Research ----systematically collect and analysis date and information for collective bargaining, court cases, union officials etc..
IV.    Welfare activities.

Craft union:
            If the workers of same craft (or) category of the job form into union is called craft union. This also called horizontal union the basic logic behind the formation of such union is that the workers belongs to the same craft face similar problems.
Ex :Drivers association, signal in staff union Indian railways.

General union:
            If the workers of any industry region and of any job or occupation form into one union in order to protect the overall interest the workers such unions are called as general unions.

Industrial union:
            If the workers of different category form into a union. That union is called industrial union. These also called as vertical union. The logic behind the formation these unions is that the workers of same industry have the common bend and they are governed by same rules and regulations and are administrated by same management. These important are these unions has been increasing in recent time.

Federation (or) confederation:
            Industrial union either of same industry or of the different industry may form into an association in order to improve T.V unity and strength. Such unions of unions are called federation during the critical situation federations form into an association is called confederation.
Ex : federation of Indian railway.

Types of trade union:
            Trade unions can be classified according to the
      The purpose for which they are established
      Types of their membership.
Trade union based on their purpose can be broadly classified into
      Reformist trade unions
      Revolutionary trade unions.
Reformist trade union:
            These unions seeks to improve the wage level, working condition, quality of life by increasing the productivity level and bargaining for sharing increase productivity. These are further classified into
a.       Business union.
b.       Friendly union.


Business union:
            Business unions primarily protect workers interest by participating in collective bargaining with the employer.

Friendly union:
            These unions concentrate moral intellectual, social life of worker, education, health, insurance and other fringe benefits.

Revolutionary union:
            These unions at replacing the present system with new and different rules and regulations based on the ideas that all regarded as preferable by its members.

Political union:
            These unions power through political action. These unions concentrate minimization of wage differentials.

Anarchist union:
            These unions try to destroy them existing economic system by revolutionary means.

Trade union act 1926:

            This act was an acted in the year 1926 in order to provide registration of trade union with a view to render law full organization of labor. This act extinct to entire India and apply to all types of unions workers and association of employers which aim at regulation the labor management relations.
Definition:
            Trade union means “any combination whether temporary or permanently for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and workmen or between employers and employees between the employers and employers imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business and includes any federation of two  (or) more trade unions.

Mode of formation and registration:

            Any 7 member may apply of registration action of trade unions to the register of trade unions of the geographical area concerned. The application shall be verified by schedule 1, schedule2 and resolutationary authorizing 7 ordinary numbers of a trade union to make an application for registration the register after making reasonable enquiry issues a registration certificate.

Obligation of registered trade union:
1.       The general funds of registered trade unions should be spend only for the objectives specified.
2.       The account books and membership registered of the union should be kept open for inspection by any of its office bearers.
3.       The copy of every organization made in the rules of trade union should be sent to the register within 15 days of making alteration.
4.       An annual statement of receipt and expenditure and assets and liabilities of the union for year ending on the 31st December prepared as for the described formats and duly audited should be sent to the register with in the prescribed time.
5.       Change of name:  any registered trade union may with the consent of not less than 2/3 of its total members may make application inform form-4 for the change of its name to the register.

Annual returns:
            Every trade union shall sent annual returns to the register in triplicate on are before 1st day of June of the year. Succeeding the calendar year  in form-L. In case of individual trade union in form-LL in case of federation of trade union.

Penalties:
            Often cases punishable for the failure to submit returns any extend to 5rs and in case of continuing default with an additional fine which may extent to 5 Rs for each week and shall not exceed 50rs. Any person who fills fully makes or causes to be made any false entry or any permission general statement repaired by the section 28 of this act shall be punishable which may extent 500rs.

Problems of trade union in India:
i.         Multiplicity of unions
ii.        Small size of unions
iii.      Low membership
iv.      Poor financial position
v.       Political inference
vi.      Union rivalry
vii.    Outside leadership
viii.   Inactive functioning

ix.      Victimization

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